The Republic of Armenia is a country in Southern Caucasus. The country covers 29.800 square kilometers. It has borders with Georgia in the north, with Azerbaijan in the east and the south-west, with Nagorno-Karabakh Republic in the south-east, with Islamic Republic of Iran in the south and with Turkey in the west. Armenia has no sea-border.
The official language of the RA is Armenian, which belongs to Indo-European language family and makes up a separate branch. Mesropian alphabet has been used since year 405.
The Constitutional type of Armenia is Presidential Republic, the national currency is dram of RA.
The territory of the RA is divided into 11 units: 10 marzes (regions) and the capital city, Yerevan, which has a special status. The capital city, Yerevan, is one of the oldest cities in the world, which was founded in 782 BC. There are 48 urban and 949 rural residences in the RA.
The population of Armenia is relatively homogeneous: out if 3.200.000 people Armenians make up 98%, and they are professing Christianity (Armenian Apostolic Church, the center of which is situated in Vagharshapat town of Armavir region). Armenians belong to Armenoid anthropological type of Europoid race and have the most ancient and developed culture in the region. Ethnic minorities include: Greeks, Yezidis, Kurds, Russians, Assyrians and others.
Historically Armenia was located at the crossroads of East and West, North and South. Even nowadays the land route connecting Southwestern and Central Asia with Europe passes through Armenia, and has been named “New Silk Road” like in the Middle Ages.
Being located in temperate climate zone, the nature of Armenia has rich and diverse fauna and flora. The mountainous and vertical position of the country has also affected the natural characteristics of it. 80% of the surface of the country is located over 1.000-2.500 meters above sea level. Little Caucasus Mountains range stretches from north to south of the country. The highest point of the RA is Mount Aragats (4090 meters), the lowest point situated in the north of the country is village Bagratashen in Debed river valley (280 meters).
The country is rich in water supplies: one of the longest rivers of south-western Asia, Araks River, flows through eastern border of Armenia. The ornament of Armenian nature is blue-eyed Sevan, which is located at 1.910 meters above sea level and has area of 1.264 sq. km. Lake Sevan is the second highest mountainous lake in the world after lake Titicaca.
The country is rich in natural resources (basically metal and limestone). Mountain mining and metallurgy are developed in the country.